在路上 ……

Linux系统运维与架构

yum install rrdtool rrdtool-perl fping echoping curl perl-Net-Telnet perl-Net-DNS perl-LDAP perl-CGI-SpeedyCGI perl-libwww-perl perl-RadiusPerl perl-IO-Socket-SSL perl-Socket

tar zxvf smokeping-2.6.9.tar.gz
cd  smokeping-2.6.9
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/smokeping

会出现如下错误:

checking checking for gnu make availablility... /usr/bin/gmake is GNU make
checking checking for perl module 'RRDs'... Failed
checking checking for perl module 'FCGI'... Failed
checking checking for perl module 'CGI'... Failed
checking checking for perl module 'CGI::Fast'... Failed
checking checking for perl module 'Config::Grammar'... Failed
checking checking for perl module 'Digest::HMAC_MD5'... Ok
checking checking for perl module 'LWP'... Ok

** Aborting Configure ******************************

   If you know where perl can find the missing modules, set
   the PERL5LIB environment variable accordingly.

   FIRST though, make sure that 'perl' starts the perl
   binary you want to use for SmokePing.

   Now you can install local copies of the missing modules
   by running

     ./setup/build-perl-modules.sh /usr/local/smokeping/thirdparty

   The RRDs perl module is part of RRDtool. Either use the rrdtool
   package provided by your OS or install rrdtool from source.
   If you install from source, the RRDs module is located
   PREFIX/lib/perl

运行:./setup/build-perl-modules.sh /usr/local/smokeping/thirdparty 自动安装缺失的perl模块

然后再次运行./configure --prefix=/usr/local/smokeping
如果还有错,运行export PERL5LIB=/usr/local/smokeping/thirdparty/lib/perl5/ 再次运行configure
/usr/bin/gmake install
即可完成smokeping的安装
然后cd /usr/local/smokeping/
创建cache、data、var目录
mkdir cache data var

配置apache通过web显示监控结果

Alias /smokeping/cache/ /usr/local/smokeping/cache/
Alias /smokeping/ /usr/local/smokeping/htdocs/
<Directory /usr/local/smokeping/htdocs/>
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all
        Options ExecCGI
        AddHandler cgi-script .fcgi
        <IfModule dir_module>
                DirectoryIndex smokeping.fcgi
        </IfModule>
</Directory>

slave上配置

echo "passwordyoudefine" > /usr/local/smokeping/etc/slave_secret.txt
chmod 600 /usr/local/smokeping/etc/slave_secret.txt

/usr/local/smokeping/bin/smokeping --master-url=http://yourserveraddress/smokeping/smokeping.fcgi --shared-secret=/usr/local/smokeping/etc/slave_secret.txt --cache-dir=/usr/local/smokeping/cache/ --slave-name=slavename

Airprobe How-To
https://srlabs.de/airprobe-how-to/

https://srlabs.de/decrypting_gsm/

Find KC with Kraken
https://lists.srlabs.de/pipermail/a51/2010-July/000688.html

to run Kraken, we should follow these steps:

1- edit conf file
2- execute Behemoth.py to generate index tables
3- run Kraken


原文:Optimizing NGINX and PHP-fpm for high traffic sites

译者:youngsterxyf

使用Nginx搭配PHP已有7年的这份经历让我们学会如何为高流量站点优化NGINX和PHP-fpm配置。

以下正是这方面的一些提示和建议:

##1. 将TCP切换为UNIX域套接字
UNIX域套接字相比TCP套接字在loopback接口上能提供更好的性能(更少的数据拷贝和上下文切换)。

但有一点需要牢记:仅运行在同一台服务器上的程序可以访问UNIX域套接字(显然没有网络支持)。

upstream backend
{
    # UNIX domain sockets
    server unix:/var/run/fastcgi.sock;

    # TCP sockets
    # server 127.0.0.1:8080;
}

##2. 调整工作进程数
现代计算机硬件是多处理器的,NGINX可以利用多物理或虚拟处理器。

多数情况下,你的Web服务器都不会配置为处理多种任务(比如作为Web服务器提供服务的同时也是一个打印服务器),你可以配置NGINX使用所有可用的处理器,NGINX工作进程并不是多线程的。

运行以下命令可以获知你的机器有多少个处理器:

Linux上 -

cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep processor

FreeBSD上 -

sysctl dev .cpu | grep location

将nginx.conf文件中work_processes的值设置为机器的处理器核数。

同时,增大worker_connections(每个处理器核心可以处理多少个连接)的值,以及将"multi_accept"设置为ON,如果你使用的是Linux,则也使用"epoll":

# We have 16 cores
worker_processes 16;

# connections per worker
events
{
    worker_connections 4096;
    multi_accept on;
}

##3. 设置upstream负载均衡
以我们的经验来看,同一台机器上多个upstream后端相比单个upstream后端能够带来更高的吞吐量。

例如,如果你想支持最大1000个PHP-fpm子进程(children),可以将该数字平均分配到两个upstream后端,各自处理500个PHP-fpm子进程:

upstream backend {
    server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock1 weight=100 max_fails=5 fail_timeout=5;
    server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock2 weight=100 max_fails=5 fail_timeout=5;
}

以下是两个来自php-fpm.conf的进程池:

<section name="pool">

    <value name="name">www1</value>
    <value name="listen_address">/var/run/php5-fpm.sock1</value>

    <value name="listen_options">
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
    </value>

    <value name="user">www</value>
    <value name="group">www</value>

    <value name="pm">
        <value name="style">static</value>
        <value name="max_children">500</value>
    </value>

    <value name="rlimit_files">50000</value>
    <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>
    <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">20s</value>
    <value name="slowlog">/var/log/php-slow.log</value>
    <value name="chroot"></value>
    <value name="chdir"></value>
    <value name="catch_workers_output">no</value>
    <value name="max_requests">5000</value>
    <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

    <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/usr/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/usr/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/usr/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
    </value>

</section>

<section name="pool">

    <value name="name">www2</value>
    <value name="listen_address">/var/run/php5-fpm.sock2</value>

    <value name="listen_options">
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
    </value>

    <value name="user">www</value>
    <value name="group">www</value>

    <value name="pm">
        <value name="style">static</value>
        <value name="max_children">500</value>
    </value>

    <value name="rlimit_files">50000</value>
    <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>
    <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">20s</value>
    <value name="slowlog">/var/log/php-slow.log</value>
    <value name="chroot"></value>
    <value name="chdir"></value>
    <value name="catch_workers_output">no</value>
    <value name="max_requests">5000</value>
    <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

    <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/usr/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/usr/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/usr/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
    </value>

</section>

##4. 禁用访问日志文件
这一点影响较大,因为高流量站点上的日志文件涉及大量必须在所有线程之间同步的IO操作。

access_log off;
log_not_found off;
error_log /var/log/nginx-error.log warn;

若你不能关闭访问日志文件,至少应该使用缓冲:

access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log main buffer=16k;

##5. 启用GZip

gzip on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
gzip_vary on;
gzip_proxied any;
gzip_comp_level 6;
gzip_min_length 1100;
gzip_buffers 16 8k;
gzip_http_version 1.1;
gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;

##6. 缓存被频繁访问的文件相关的信息

open_file_cache max=200000 inactive=20s;
open_file_cache_valid 30s;
open_file_cache_min_uses 2;
open_file_cache_errors on;

##7. 调整客户端超时时间

client_max_body_size 500M;
client_body_buffer_size 1m;
client_body_timeout 15;
client_header_timeout 15;
keepalive_timeout 2 2;
send_timeout 15;
sendfile on;
tcp_nopush on;
tcp_nodelay on;

##8. 调整输出缓冲区大小

fastcgi_buffers 256 16k;
fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
fastcgi_connect_timeout 3s;
fastcgi_send_timeout 120s;
fastcgi_read_timeout 120s;
reset_timedout_connection on;
server_names_hash_bucket_size 100;

##9. /etc/sysctl.conf调优

# Recycle Zombie connections
net.inet.tcp.fast_finwait2_recycle=1
net.inet.tcp.maxtcptw=200000

# Increase number of files
kern.maxfiles=65535
kern.maxfilesperproc=16384

# Increase page share factor per process
vm.pmap.pv_entry_max=54272521
vm.pmap.shpgperproc=20000

# Increase number of connections
vfs.vmiodirenable=1
kern.ipc.somaxconn=3240000
net.inet.tcp.rfc1323=1
net.inet.tcp.delayed_ack=0
net.inet.tcp.restrict_rst=1
kern.ipc.maxsockbuf=2097152
kern.ipc.shmmax=268435456

# Host cache
net.inet.tcp.hostcache.hashsize=4096
net.inet.tcp.hostcache.cachelimit=131072
net.inet.tcp.hostcache.bucketlimit=120

# Increase number of ports
net.inet.ip.portrange.first=2000
net.inet.ip.portrange.last=100000
net.inet.ip.portrange.hifirst=2000
net.inet.ip.portrange.hilast=100000
kern.ipc.semvmx=131068

# Disable Ping-flood attacks
net.inet.tcp.msl=2000
net.inet.icmp.bmcastecho=1
net.inet.icmp.icmplim=1
net.inet.tcp.blackhole=2
net.inet.udp.blackhole=1

##10. 监控
持续监控打开连接的数目,空闲内存以及等待状态线程的数目。

设置警报在超出阈值时通知你。你可以自己构建这些警报,或者使用类似ServerDensity的东西。

确认安装了NGINX的stub_status模块。该模块默认并不会编译进NGINX,所以可能你需要重新编译NGINX -

./configure --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_stub_status_module --without-mail_pop3_module
--without-mail_imap_module --without-mail_smtp_module
make install BATCH=yes

Typecho 强力驱动